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Concordat teaching: The Undermigration of Philosophy, Sociology and Padagogy by Catholic Theology. An interview with Konrad Lotter

A concorded study chair is a chair that is not located in a theological faculty, but when casting the Catholic Church is still decisive influence, so the Vatican has definitely more than a word to Meitzuren. What is usually taught on these teachers without knowledge of the students is a spirit, social and educational science filtered by the Catholic Church, which is financed by state. While the public interest in the Christian religion is steady, the church has the uncrossed possibility of influence on research and teaching due to a contract between the Free State of Bavaria and the Holy Chair from 1924.

Paradoxically, you will have the right to train even those students who have not decided to study theology. A conversation with Konrad Lotter, philosopher and editor of the "contradiction. Munchner magazine for philosophy ", who in the context of the latest edition "Faith or reason. To the critique of religion" has researched the role of concordat teaching in Bavaria.

What are Concordat teaching hollow??

Konrad Lotter: "Concordat teaching" are teaching pleasure outside the theological faculty whose occupation is dependent on the Catholic Church. Such teaching residence is also available in other federal tags, Z. B. At the universities in Dusseldorf, Mainz, Bonn, Koln or Munster, but above all in Bavaria. Their legal basis is the concorded, which Bavaria has closed with the Vatican in 1924 and has been changed several times since then. In his original Fang such an Article 4 § 2 is: at the Universities of Munich and Wurzburg is to set up a Chair in the two Fachern philosophy and history in each case, "to raise with regard to its Catholic-ecclesiastical point of no memory" against its owner is. It was aimed at a wider, about theology students also going public; after the failed Soviet Republic, the state of the Catholic Church raumte a coarser one room in modeling the public opinion and the consolidation of conservative tendencies.

21 Concordat academic chair in Bavaria

this contract is regulated is still true? What is the current situation of the Concordat represents academic chair?

Konrad Lotter: The mabgebenden for the present situation changes the Concordat agreement made in 1968, 1974 and 1978. In 1968 was in Bavaria, the denominational school, d.H. the separated information of the primary shoulder, abolished; At their place, the Christian community school joined as a regular school. Dafur was a change in the Bavarian emphasis necessary, which violated the requirements of the Concordat Treaty. The political prize, which the state of the Catholic Church paid to receive their consent, was an expansion of the concordedness teaching, both after the number of universities and the number of specialists. The Bavarian State continued to commit to the previous Padagogical Universities in Munchen, Augsburg, Bamberg, Nurnberg, Regensburg and Wurzburg ever to ease a program for a prospagon and a teaching assignment or a verfer for philosophy of the church, which could now be in it, whether or not against the "Catholic-Church standpoint" of the candidate, or not. To the concorded teachers at the universities came to the Padagogical Universities, to the specialists philosophy and history, also the subject of padago. If the church had lost the fight for the confessional school, she had won in the hegemony for the training of teachers to influence. How many concordacy teachers are actually actually?

Konrad Lotter: The integration of the Padagogical universities into the Universities (1972) and the constituence of new universities (Bamberg, Passau) made further envelope of the concord statement in 1974 and 1978. Now it was the student movement of 1968, which had climbed the state and had caused to oppose the rebellious demands of the young generation a religious-restorative counterforce. On the one hand, all seven Bavarian universities received concordat teaching people; On the other hand, the concordat teaching of history, which was dominated by the Spirit of Conservatism, were replaced by those of sociology or politology that had gained in importance in the course of student movement. Article 3 §5 The still-valued catch of the contract is: "The state maintenance at the Universities Augsburg, Erlangen-Nurnberg, Munchen (Ludwig-Maximilians-University), Passau, Regensburg and Wurzburg and at the Hochschule Bamberg on a for educational school Studied Department of Department of a Chair of Philosophy, for Social Sciences and Padagogy, against whose owners are not a reminder with regard to their Catholic-church point of view."Three teachers at seven universities: this gives 21 concorded teaching. That’s astonishing a lot. Why is this circumstance known so little? Is the existence of concorded teaching hooks like a state secret?

Konrad Lotter: The owners of the Concordat teaching session was indeed not quite easy. The archdiozesis Munchen-Freising took me to the Ministry of Science, the Ministry of Sciences to the press offices of the universities, the presses gave z.T. before the existence of concordat teaching do nothing to know or refused the statement citing data protection. I had the impression that you want to help the information to avoid a public discussion that could be explored in the context of the newly collected studders of brisant. You have the names but but?

Konrad Lotter: Yes, but only after a long time and the help of a member of parliament from the ranks of opposition. At the University of Munchen (LMU), for example, the concorded teacher are occupied with Wilhelm Vosskuhl (Philosophy), Norbert Braun (Sociology) and Hartmut Ditton (General Padagogy, Educational and Socialization Research). The complete list of the total of 21 professors can be read in my article in the "contradiction". What is the quantitative ratio of concorded teachers and normal teaching residents?

Konrad Lotter: If one compares the total number of teaching challenge to Bavarian universities with the number of concorded teachers, the following scenery follows: from 31 teaching challenges for padagoism, 7 are controlled by the Catholic Church (22.6%); of 12 teaching challenges in political science 3 (25%); from 12 teachers in sociology 4 (33.3%); From 19 teaching challenges in philosophy have 7 a Catholic orientation (36.8%). So it was in 1997 and was officially communicated due to a request in the state parliament. Through the understood scientific orientation of the universities and the shortening of the financial resources for the humanities, the ratio has now further shifted in favor of the Catholic teaching residence, which were not affected by these shorts.. Take only the philosophy! In Munchchen, for example, in addition to the Concordat’s Chair in Philosophy, the so-called Guardinileuhluft is also the "Christian World Viewing and Religious Philosophy", which is traditionally occupied with a Catholics and was renamed a few years ago in "Chair of Philosophy of Europe’s religions". In addition, the "Chair of Mentor’s History and Philosophy of the Renaissance" (formerly Ernesto Grassi and Eckhard Kebler) has transformed into a "Chair of Business Ethics", which is also not a concorded study chair, but still one by his studies of Catholic theology and his teaching At the Catholic College in Eichstatt Catholic appointed Catholic. In Passau there are two teaching challenges for philosophy: one is within the Catholic-Theological Faculty, the other is the concorded study chair at the philosophical faculty. There is no possible opportunity to study a philosophy, which has no Catholic previously. Against the tarpaulin of the government to collect the chair for philosophy overhead, there has been a one "List resistance" educated with the receipt of this chair at the same time for a "concordless-free complete specialist representative". Such, which after a judgment of the Bavarian Council Court of 11. April 1980 had to be secured at every university, has not been available since about ten years

Catholic values over the study

In such a surprompression Catholic inspired philosophy, one could not speak of an "indoctrination"?

Konrad Lotter: Find out the problem of critical students.. The simple question, whether the requirement profile of the chairholder is in contradiction to the claim for value of science raised by Max Weber, was able to revitalize the academic dialogue. Some concordat philosophers, like the emeritized Robert Spaemann, explicitly considered propagandists of Catholicism by providing the positions given by the church to the ie of abortion, gene manipulation, nature conservation, evolution etc. philosophically convey. By contrast, most of the other professors are not known that they are owners of concordat teaching. They beheaded undercover and let their belief superstructure be underwalled in the scientific discourse. Unfortunately, many students are naive. They study philosophy, sociology, political science or studagogy studying and do not even remember how to give them – about their field of study – Catholic values are admitted. What about the philosophy of Bavaria’s universities?

Konrad Lotter: What is taught as a philosophy in Bavaria, one can characterize today’s situation, is – directly or acknowledged – for the excited part only a Catholic-filtered philosophy or – positive printed – a philosophy inspired by Catholic Theology. This circumstance is all the more remarkable, as since the romance no significant philosopher has emerged from the camp of Catholicism. Apart from the mentioned concorded teachers, there are also two universities in Bavaria, which are explicitly Catholic and also teach philosophy, the Catholic university in Eichstatt and the University of Philosophy operated by the Jesuits in Munchner Kaulbachstraben. The latter has presented about 600 students and employed 20 professors / lecturers and 30 teaching officers. Your goal is to reflect according to your own information "to reflect methodically on the foundations of credo existence and to penetrate the relationship between philosophy and theology".

Direct connection of Reichskonkordat and Establishment Act

Some questions on the political significance of the concorded teaching. Which role did they play in the time of "Third Reich"?

Konrad Lotter: The political significance will only be considered when the Concordat of 1924, which owns a long history, is associated with the Reichskonkordat from 1933. The resistance that the Catholic Center Party and the Catholic Bishop had contributed the NSDAP to the Pope was driven by the Pope. Pius xi. Treasured Hitler as "the first and only statesman", who "publicly speak against Bolshevism". A short time later, the Center Party agreed to the "Establishment Act" and also the bishofs explained officially, the goals of the NSDAP are compatible with those of Catholicism. The Pope had been enforced with Hitler with his federal social policy and made the spiritual political Catholicism. In return, on the one hand, on the one hand, guarantees for the ideological acquis of the church such as the maintenance and expansion of Catholic confessions, the securing and enlargement of the Catholic confessions, the securing of the obligatory religious education in public schools, the continued theological teaching residence, the arance of the prison and military seeds – and also the concorded teaching house. In § 2 of the Reich Concordat, it is not limited that the existing landing concecordates (such as.B. that with Bavaria of 1924) remain in force. On the other hand, the church also gains significant material advantages: state subsidies such as Z.B. The financing of religious education, the theological options or concorded teachers are retained, the church tax will now be driven by the state for the first time and overlooked the church – an amount of 9450 million Reichsmark. There is an immediate connection between the Establishment Act and the conclusion of the Reich Concordat?

Konrad Lotter: K is on this context. D. Bracher made aware for the first time. Other historians have confirmed his thesis. However, the concorded is rising only as a "tactical masterpiece" Hitler. On the one hand, it had turned off an opposition that did not love "equally" due to its international organizationality, on the other, Hitler had made Salonfah, because the covenarian with the Pope opened the treatments for international diplomacy. Daruber was forgotten that the covenization with Hitler was also on the line of pastern interests. By waiving political opposition, which resulted from a few individual exceptions, aside the silent toleration of the terror regime, one could acquire institutional and financial benefits, occupy positions and secure influence spheres.

Odium of collaboration

How did the concorded student owners behave during the "Third Reich"?

Konrad Lotter: It is known that the Bavarian Concordat teaching session during the "Third Reich" was relatively unmolested. Planning to rewidem them in teaching residence for National Socialist worldview, were not persecuted sustainably. As private individuals, the owners of the Philosophical Concordat teaching Hans Meyer in Wurzburg and F. J. From Rintelen in Munchen probably conservative, but no Nazis; They even stood in the calls of opposition against the regime. Nevertheless, the Odium of Collaboration with National Socialism is attributable to the institution of the Concordat teaching house. The political prize, which the "Holy See" for their continued existence was paid, was the aid to Hitler’s detention and the contractually ared waiver to counteract his policy. How did it go after 1945?

Konrad Lotter: In the case of teacher education and schools, the rulers in the "Third Reich" have not considered the contractual agreements with the Catholic Church, as in the case of concordat teaching. As soon as the new regime had been consolidated, then the teacher formation (1935), then the entire elementary school (1937/38) were deceptive; The community school became the control school. The breach of breach of the contract allows the church to present itself as a victim of Nazi rigration after the collapse – and to conceal its contribution to the seizure of power as well as her toleration of the Jewish destruction or the organized escape relief for Nazi-Prominency to Sudamerica in 1945 by the unforgettable Bishop Hudal in 1945. But he also measured that the reconfessionalization of schools and teacher education during the Adenauer period could contact the concordat contract of 1933. Also the concordat teaching house remained.

Action at committal court

There was no resistance to the continued existence of the Concordat teaching?

Konrad Lotter: In 1977, a popular claim against the 25 was a popular action at the Bavarian Prison Court. September 1974 adopted changes in the Concordate Act of 1924, which commenced an extension of the concordat teaching. It was tried to prove their eligibility through three arguments. First, the existence of the concordat teaching hatches limit the in Article 107 ABS. 4 and Article 116 of the Bavarian Contest Handed False Rights on Freedom, Religion-Dependent Access to Public Offers; Second, in Article 107, it violates the freedom of science, by providing preference by a preselection of a certain orientation and affecting the equal opportunities of applicants; Thirdly, the "History History" of a claim does not have a priority to a "catching reorganization". And the result?

Konrad Lotter: The lawsuit was on 11. April 1980 related to the argument, there is a common responsibility of the state and church in the field of education and education, so that the state depends on cooperation with the Christian churches in compliance with the education goals. It is probably recognized the correctness of the mutual, but at the same time pointed out that in the course of the "value demonstration" in colliding fundamental rights, the fundamental rights of individual persons in compliance with the principle of relevance could be restricted. That probably meets that the concordat teaching hatch continues to all eternity?

Konrad Lotter: That does not necessarily mean it. In principle, catching judgments are based on a social consensus and must therefore also be reviewed according to the judgment of the rating of advanced committee every 20 or 30 years. In the meantime, the social state, which was based on the burst of the commitment of the beginning, has changed strongly. Reunification has increased significantly the number of non-denominational; Migration has the proportion of other religions (such as.B. of Islam) increased; Millions of millions, the importance of the two Grobkirchen has shrunk. The Sunday church banks are always empty. In 2004, the number of non-denominational (32.4% of German population) was high for the first time than that of the Protestants and the Catholics (CA each. 31%). Can one speak of the common responsibility of the state and Catholic Church in the field of education and education under these conditions? If one already refused to abolish the concordacy teaching, not the Protestants, the Muslims, the Jews, the clarified atheists or other "socially relevant groups" such as Z.B. the unions are set up own teaching challenges? Let the narrow connection between state and church, which is reflected in the concordat teaching, do not emerge the suspicion of fundamentalism?

Konrad Lotter: As a matter of fact. In addition to the social changes, there are also political reasons that speak for a repeal of the concordat teaching. The fight against terrorism has increased the sensitivity of the fundamentalist states, such as Iran. Where political and religious guides mix and merge into a unit, there is a risk of irrational alit, unpredictability and fanaticism. As a European ideally, the laizism floats, such as.B. In France, where state and church are in principle separated: the state as Res Publica is subject to democratic control by the publicity, religion as Res Privata is the matter for the "heart" and the attitude is the responsibility of the individual decision. Germany and in particular the Free State of Bavaria are not a fundamentalist states, but they are not yet a Laizistic states, but are in between. The recovery of church tax by the state, the billions of subsidization of the two Christian churches (Z.B. also by the liberation of basic and capital ongoing taxes), the jungle of "altitic eligibility", which – Man Hore and amazement – still from the period of sacularization, the deputy head of 1803, developed and developed into a system of "eternal pensions" have, as well as the ideas of a modern, Laizist state, such as the elaborate financing of the state-prescribed religious education or the concorded teacher by the taxpayer. But we live in the "Christian Occident"!

Konrad Lotter: Undoubtedly Europe has its roots in Christianity. What distinguishes from other continents and cultures, however, are the epochs of the Renaissance and humanism, the explanation, the philosophy and science, which all wanted to emancipate from Christianity. Educated goods not religion, but the gradual liberation from religion. The romantic ideas of Europe as a Christian Occident belongs to the past.

Incompatibility of philosophy and religion

Are religion and philosophy not related to each other? Do not pursue the same goals?

Konrad Lotter: The body of philosophy is reason; The organ of religion is the faith. Despite the stable insurance of the opposite of the Catholic theologians, most recently also from the pope in his Regensburg speech, are reason and believe something in principle different. Philosophy relies on science, audience and communication; The religion has to do with incomprehensible and with revelation. There is probably a common interest, the appropriation of the world, but this goal is pursued in completely different ways: on the way of the presentation, the pictures and myths or or. On the way of the term. As soon as the religion argues, she leaves her own terrain. As soon as the philosophy turns into faith questions, she tries to penetrate the infringement of absurd and inconcluded with the help of reason. Accordingly, concordat teaching sessions in philosophy were a bit paradoxical in philosophy, as they have for the faith and anchoring in the church to be a prerequisite.

Konrad Lotter: In the decision of the Bavarian Festival Court of 1980, the view of the Church is quoted, according to which the owners of the Concordat’s Hulke "were" not bound to church dogmas ", but had the task of" awakening the understanding of general beliefs "," a " Catholic philosophy on a Christian foundation "and" General values and statements, Z.B. Transcendence, freedom of will, guilty of man … To convey the participation and family, unity of faith and knowledge ". Even without dogmatic binding, the starting and the endpoint of her thinking is therefore. The claim of philosophy, the false to overwind and the truth to her right to help is not shared. Rather, the chair holder are obliged from the outset to certain positions. With the autonomy of thinking, as it is called by Kant, it is probably not far?

Konrad Lotter: The creditancy of philosophers, against whose "Catholic-Church standpoint no reminder" is not very rough. Anyone who has set up in the "self-confident infringement" of the faith and also relates to his livelihood, which is the "Sapere Aude" of the enemy. His thinking has limits and conditions that are specified by AUBEN and thus contradict the autonomy of thinking. (Reinhard YellenTo)

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